Health&Me Demo Report

Alzheimer's Disease

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia. It is an irreversible, but scientists believe that for most people the development of Alzheimer’s disease is caused by a combination of genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors.

Your Results

Amy, you may have a slightly increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease.


However, this does not indicate that you will develop Alzheimer's disease.

Consider discussing your risk with a healthcare professional, especially if you have a family history, or other risk factors for this condition.


How To Use This Test

This test SHOULD NOT be used to diagnose Alzheimer's disease or any other health conditions.

Please talk to a healthcare professional if you have a family history, if you think you might have this condition or if you have any concerns about your results.

This result is based on the SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism) that are associated with the development of Alzheimer's disease.

The following table shows your genotype for the genes tested, and the associated risks.

GeneYour GenotypeDescription
PLD3AAIncreased risk
TREM2TTIncreased risk
APPGGNormal
APOECTIncreased risk
TM2D3GGNormal

Limitations

The results of this test do not diagnose Alzheimer's disease, or any other type of dementia. This should not be used as a diagnostic tool.

This result does not include all possible variants or genes associated with Alzheimer's disease.

This result is limited to existing scientific research.


Other Risk Factors

Genetics are NOT the only risk factor for Alzheimer's disease.

Alzheimer's disease is believed to be caused by a combination of environmental, genetic and lifestyle factors. Now that you have learnt about your genetic risk, you can determine how aggressively you need to make lifestyle changes to reduce your risk.

The earlier in your life that you commit to living a healthy lifestyle, the more you can reduce your risk for or delay the development of Alzheimer’s disease.

Age

The risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) increases greatly as a person ages.

Approximately 5% of the people aged 65- 74 have AD, while the risk increases to 50% for people over 85 year old.

Gender

More women than men have Alzheimer's disease, perhaps due to both biological and lifestyle factors.

Family History

Having an immediate family member that is diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD) increases your risk of developing Alzheimer's disease.

The risk increases if more than one family member has AD.

Heart health

Conditions that may damage heart or blood vessels like heart disease, diabetes, stroke, may increase risk of developing Alzheimer's disease.

Intellectual activity

Fewer years of education is associated with greater risk of developing Alzheimer's disease later in life.

Head injuries

Research has linked severe or traumatic head injuries with higher risk of developing Alzheimer's disease.

Recommendations

Your genetic risk is only one part of the picture. You are still in control of other lifestyle factors that may contribute to the risk of developing this disease.


Physical Activity

Moderate or high intensity physical activity can reduce the risk of cognitive decline in healthy individuals by up to 35-38%.

Brain Stimulating Activity

Alzheimer's disease may be preventable through cognitive reserve and mental activity, lifelong learning, physical activity, active social engagement and optimistic mindset.

Diet

Well-balanced diet and optimum omega 3 intake exert protective effect against Alzheimer's disease.

About Alzheimer's Disease

When Does It Develop?

Most people with Alzheimer's disease are diagnosed after the age of 65. In rare ocassions, around 5% of the people with Alzheimer's disease are diagnosed before the age of 65, which is known as early onset Alzheimer's disease.

How Common Is It?

The risk of Alzheimer's disease increases with age, affecting an estimated 1 in 14 people over the age of 65 and 1 in every 6 people over the age of 80.

Signs & Symptoms
  • Memory loss that disrupts daily life
  • Have difficulty planning or solving problems
  • Have difficulty completing familiar tasks
  • Confusion with time or place
  • Trouble understanding visual images or judging distances
  • Changes in mood or personality
If you have a family history of this condition or think you have the symptoms, consult with a healthcare professional.

References

1. Bhushan, I. et al. Annals of Biotechnology Alzheimer’s disease: Causes & treatment – A review. 1, (2018).
2. Jayedi, A., Rashidy-Pour, A. & Shab-Bidar, S. Vitamin D status and risk of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease: A meta-analysis of dose-response. Nutr. Neurosci. 1–10 (2018). doi:10.1080/1028415X.2018.1436639
3. Mendiola-Precoma, J., Berumen, L. C., Padilla, K. & Garcia-Alcocer, G. Therapies for Prevention and Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease. Biomed Res. Int. 2016, 2589276 (2016).
4. Cruchaga, C. et al. Rare coding variants in the phospholipase D3 gene confer risk for Alzheimer’s disease. Nature 505, 550–554 (2014).
5. Guerreiro, R. et al. TREM2 variants in Alzheimer’s disease. N. Engl. J. Med. 368, 117–127 (2013).
6. Jonsson, T. et al. A mutation in APP protects against Alzheimer’s disease and age-related cognitive decline. Nature 488, 96–99 (2012).
7. Rubinsztein, D. C. & Easton, D. F. Apolipoprotein E genetic variation and Alzheimer’s disease. a meta-analysis. Dement. Geriatr. Cogn. Disord. 10, 199–209 (1999).
8. Jakobsdottir, J. et al. Rare Functional Variant in TM2D3 is Associated with Late-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease. PLOS Genet. 12, e1006327 (2016).

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